パラミツ（ハラミツ、波羅蜜、菠蘿蜜、学名：Artocarpus heterophyllus）はクワ科パンノキ属の常緑高木。英語で、ジャックフルーツ（jack fruit）と呼ばれ、東南アジア、南アジア、アフリカ、ブラジルで果樹などとして栽培されている。東アジアでは台湾南部や中国海南省、広東省、雲南省などで栽培されている。原産はインドからバングラデシュと考えられている。, バングラデシュ（ベンガル語）ではカタール（Kathal）、インド（ヒンディー語）ではカタル（Katal）、インドネシア語やマレー語ではナンカ（Nangka）、タイではカヌーン（タイ語: ขนุน）、ベトナム語ではミッ（mít）と呼ばれる。, 和名は漢語由来の波羅蜜であるが、ほかにマレー語のナンカを語源とする南果（なんか）とも呼ばれ、同属異種のパンノキとの対比で、パラミツの木を長実パンの木（ながみぱんのき）とも呼ぶ。, 英語ではJack fruit（ジャックフルーツ）と呼ばれるのは、マラヤラム語の「Chakka」が、ポルトガル語に借用されて「Jaca」となり、それが英語に借用され、類型を示すfruitと結びついた結果と考えられる。, 常緑の高木で、葉は成木では長楕円形だが、幼木では大きな切れ込みがあり、学名（種小名）のheteropyllum（異形葉）は、こうした成木と幼木で著しく葉の形が異なることを指している。 雌雄同株で、雄花のみをつける雄花序は枝の先につくが、雌花のみをつける雌花序は幹生花と呼ばれ、幹に直接つく。, 幹や太い枝に連なってぶら下がる果実は長さ70cm、幅40cm、重さ40-50kgに達することもあり、世界最大の果実といわれる。その形は、歪んだ球形や楕円形が多いが、ときに円柱形となり、長さにも差がある。果実の表面には数mmのいぼ状の突起があり、熟すと全体に黄色になり、強烈な甘い匂いを放つ。果実はクワ科の特徴である集合果で、花序を形成する組織の多くが合着して果実となる。繊維状にほぐれる淡黄色から黄色の果肉や仮種皮を食用にする。種子は2cmほどのやや長円形で、これも食用になる。パラミツは実生から3年で果実をつけることもあるほど生長が早い。, 同属のコパラミツ（A. Propagation by vegetative means offers handicap. But it can be easily prevented by using organic insecticide. The jackfruit tree is a giant that grows up to a height of 30 to 70 feet. Its use is better for the perception of health. Other major pests are the stem and fruit borer, Margaronia caecalis, and the brown bud-weevil, Ochyromera artocarpio. © Krishi Sandesh. Any injury to roots or breaking of earth ball will lead to the poor establishment of the plants at their permanent position. Jackfruit Tree Pollination. The jackfruit tree flourishes in rich, deep soil of medium or open texture, sometimes on deep gravelly or laterite soil. In winter, when the temperature goes down significantly, then there should be a heavy mulch on all four sides of the plant. Keep writing.”, “I appreciate you sharing this article.Really looking forward to read more. After 25 years of testing, one hybrid was rated as outstanding for precocity, fruit size, off-season as well as main season production, and yield excelling its parents. This fast growth and size management make it ideal for growers wanting quick production or have a limited growing area. The fruits are nearly round or irregular, 2 to 5 in (5-12.5 cm) wide, velvety, dull-yellow tinged with pink, with sweet sour pulp which is occasionally eaten raw but mostly made into curries or chutney. Raw jackfruit seeds are indigestible due to the presence of a powerful trypsin inhibitor. lastModDate = new Date(document.lastModified) with Answer Key, Ebook: Agriculture Competitive Exam Questions with Answer Key for Food Science & Technology, Ebook: Agriculture Competitive Exam Questions with Answer Key on Horticulture, Ebook: Agriculture Competitive Exam Questions with Answer Key on Forestry, Ebook: Agriculture Competitive Exam - Agriculture Olympiad - Part 2 (General), Ebook: Agriculture Competitive Exam - Agriculture Olympiad - Part 1 (General), Ebook: Practical Manual For Fundamentals Of Horticulture - Adopt a Tree Plantation & Get Free, Book: Objective and Glossary of Horticulture Fruit Science, Tuberose Cultivation Guide: How to Grow Tuberose flowers, Webcast: Pit Preparation For Fruit Plant – How to Prepare Pit Before Plantation, Cultivation of Mango in Ultra High Density Mango Plantation, Agriculture Courses for SKUAST J Students. The bark is applied on skin ailments. Burkill declares that it is the raw, unripe fruit that is astringent and indigestible. Though, Durian is considered big and Jackfruit is also considered giant, the comparison doesn’t even exist: Jackfruit size is heavy and it can weight up to 50 Kgs. They are swee… Both grow on the trees no matter how big they get and how weighty they become. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks! Jackfruit and Durian are considered similar maybe because they grow deep in the woods, in jungles. where marginal orchards exist. The bulbs may then be enjoyed raw or cooked (with coconut milk or otherwise); or made into ice cream, chutney, jam, jelly, paste, "leather" or papad, or canned in sirup made with sugar or honey with citric acid added. Looking at classifications: The only similarity you can find between both is they both belong to Plantae. The caterpillar of the leaf webbers, Perina nuda and Diaphania bivitralis, is a minor problem, as are aphids, Greenidea artocarpi and Toxoptera aurantii; and thrips, Pseudodendrothrips dwivarna. Six other flavonoids have been isolated at the National Chemical Laboratory, Poona.Bark: There is only 3.3% tannin in the bark which is occasionally made into cordage or cloth.Medicinal Uses: The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds tonic, cooling and nutritious, and to be "useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system." However, lack of pollination may lead to the drop of female spike. Your email address will not be published. By a method patented in India, the ripe bulbs may be dried, fried in oil and salted for eating like potato chips. White or pink spots are formed on the affected branches. Jackfruit feels like you are eating juicy plastic. maintain small tree size, Vigorous tree; annual Largest of all tree-borne fruits, the jackfruit may be 8 in to 3 ft (20-90 cm) long and 6 to 20 in (15-50 cm) wide, and the weight ranges from 10 to 60 or even as much as 110 lbs (4.5-20 or 50 kg). The seeds may be sown in situ or may be nursery-germinated and moved when no more than 4 leaves have appeared. In Thailand, it is recommended that alternate rows be planted every 10 years so that 20-year-old trees may be routinely removed from the plantation and replaced by a new generation. It will also visualize the size of each folder for easy disk space management. The latex clinging to the pot may be removed by rubbing with oil. Wild jackfruit is found in Western Ghats of India. There may be 100 or up to 500 seeds in a single fruit. We can compare jackfruit with melons in size as a 122 kg huge watermelon was ever found that’s bigger than any average-sized jackfruit. The most destructive and widespread bark borers are Indarbela tetraonis and Batocera rufomaculata. Roots of old trees are greatly prized for carving and picture framing. They have also been successfully canned in brine, in curry, and, like baked beans, in tomato sauce. It grows throughout South India up to an elevation of 2,400 meters. Durian flowers are bright yellow, similar to flower of the cherry. Bearing in jackfruit starts from the 7th to 8th year when a few fruits may develop, while the tree reaches its peak bearing stage within 15th to 16th years after planting. Firminger described two types: the Khuja (green, hard and smooth, with juicy pulp and small seeds); the Ghila (rough, soft, with thin pulp, not very juicy, and large seeds). It is grown from seed or budded onto self-seedlings or jackfruit or other Artocarpus species. Here we have added some frequently asked questions, our readers in-boxed us to answer: Here are the answers of questions you sent us in emails and comments. Tropical fruits are grown in humid areas such as around the seaside, according to the definition. fruit recommended; tree easily pruned to maintain small tree (~8 ft), Vigorous tree; annual and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Pulp The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. The pulp is eaten with rice and the seeds are roasted and eaten. Keep writing.”, “Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was searching for!”. When the soil moisture is not a limiting factor, vegetable crop like okra, brinjal, chilli, tomato, and pulses like moong, gram etc. REPORT Well, here is a detailed overview of both fruits, the jackfruit and durian. It not only contains vitamin C, but also contains Vitamin A, and B6. This is an amazing tree that is prized in some areas of the world and allowed to go to waste in others. Jackfruit, when opened, you will have to become a digger to find the actual fruit. By Great Value Maha Bachat Retails Private Limited. In 1961, the Horticultural Research Institute at Saharanpur, India, reported the acquisition of air-layered plants of the excellent varieties, 'Safeda', 'Khaja', 'Bhusila', 'Bhadaiyan' and 'Handia' and others. Period of fruit development is February to June. Jackfruit taste is rich but surprisingly neither too fruity nor meaty. Soaking one-month-old seedlings in a gibberellic acid solution (25-200 ppm) enhances shoot growth. It is stated that jackfruits grown above 4,000 ft (1,200 m) are of poor quality and usable only for cooking. Easily find large folders or subfolders in the Windows Explorer-like tree view. Since common vegetables are scarce and costly at that time of the year, jackfruit enjoys a high demand and premier price. Durian belongs to the mallow family while jackfruit in the fig and Moroccan family. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The ash of jackfruit leaves, burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers. The weight of the fruit varies widely depending on the type. Pink disease in Jackfruit mainly occurs in the Western Ghat and Niligiri regions of India. ), is also known as chempedak, cempedak, sempedak, temedak in Malaya; cham-pa-da in Thailand, tjampedak in Indonesia; lemasa in the Philippines. The exterior of the compound fruit is green or yellow when ripe. The axis of inflorescence, the multiple fruit, botanically called sorosis, the pericarp around each seed and the fleshy perianth are edible. The tree is 20 to 30 ft (6-9 m) tall with deciduous, large, leathery leaves, downy on the underside. In situ planting of 3 to 4 seed per pit leads to stronger plants. Severe symptoms of manganese deficiency have been observed in India. Therefore, during this period the interspaces of the orchard should be properly utilized. Jackfruit and durian, just because have a slightly similar look, are not the same. Surface of a young male spike is smooth, while in the case of a female flower it is granular. You will get fruit with only one plant. Take a seed in each pot. For your ease, we have found and added a video below to help you how to cut open jackfruit. If you planting in a ground Jackfruits grow faster and have big trees, so in 18 feet rows and if single trees are planting then there should be no tree or bush on 10 feet all around. Planting & Care. The chemical constituents of the latex have been reported by Tanchico and Magpanlay. Seeds in the field may be eaten by rats. Leaves: Young leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock and are said to be fattening. Well, it is a tropical fruit, a relative of breadfruit and figs and grows in tropical areas of Asia, Brazil, and Africa. Generally, ring system of irrigation should be adopted for irrigating jackfruit trees as it also economises the use of water.
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