All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. By 947 he had solved them by absorbing the duchy of Franconia into his direct rule and by handing over the others, Lorraine, Swabia, and Bavaria, to members of his family. The word Holy was not used for another two centuries, but Otto the Great has been recognised by historians as in effect the first of the Holy Roman Emperors and the most powerful European ruler of his time. In the words of Hroswitha of Gandersheim: 1. At the time, Bismarck wisely declined to levy a war indemnity against the Austrians. Furthermore, he did not feel that he could adequately defend the papacy if he was unable to directly control its territories. By his victorious campaigns, he gave Germany peace and security from foreign attack, and the preeminent position that he won as ruler gave him a … The request was denied, but although Otto had been rather presumptuous in his determined albeit premature efforts to mount the imperial throne, the privileged holder of the Holy Spear of Longinus – which, centuries later would play a vital role in the expansionist aims of both Napoleon and Hitler (and which, today, is housed within the relatively safer confines of the Treasure House at Austria’s Hofsburg Museum) – knew that it would only be a matter of time before he achieved his ultimate Germanic destiny. Otto I successfully consolidated power by confronting—and defeating—his disobedient vassals and siblings in war. Once again, rebellion was in the air and an embittered Henry of Bavaria also joined the fray in protest that his contribution to the Italian campaign had lain rewarded. Otto von Bismarck: Otto von Bismarck was born in Schonhausen, Province of Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia on April 1, 1815. Your email address will not be published. It may have been added in December, 963, when Otto deposed John for instigating an armed conspiracy with Berengar, as well as for what amounted to conduct unbecoming a pope. He was elected king Aug. 7, 936 and crowned emperor Feb. 2, 962.
Liedolf was also joined by Conrad the Red (the disgraced Duke of Lotharingia), Arnulf (the Count Palatine of the previously deposed duchal family of Bavaria) and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz, the head of the German Church.
James Westfall Thompson, Feudal Germany: Volume II (Frederick Ungar, 1962). Otto forgave him again, and Henry remained faithful thenceforth.
HERE I intend to examine the main achievements of Otto the Great by dividing his reign into three main categories: political, military and ecclesiastic. He rejected war in favor of diplomatic solutions. The support of the papacy itself was essential to the whole Ottonian system of governing, but Otto soon discovered that he himself was also vital to the long-term interests of the papacy. The plot was discovered and all the conspirators were punished except Henry, who was again forgiven. This time Eberhard was killed in battle and Giselbert drowned while fleeing. With Germany unified, William I and Bismarck turned to entrenching their domestic power. This time he stayed several years, dealing with the unrest in Rome and heading south into Byzantine-controlled portions of the peninsula.
As a result of Otto’s reluctance to grant him independence, Pope John XII eventually took sides with Berengar, welcomed his son – Adalbert – to Rome, and approached both the Hungarians and the Byzantine Empire for assistance. Otto’s new role as King of Germany was put to the test twice within the first three years of his reign, and the Bavarian (938) and Franconian (939) rebellions – led by Arnulf and Everard respectively – forced Otto to react swiftly. Otto von Bismarck: Kulturkampf, Welfare State, Empire, Otto von Bismarck: Final Years and Legacy. We have already seen how Otto I put his own brother in charge of the Lotharingian dynasty, but this process was further accelerated when the King sought to control the duchies through his clerics by appointing them himself and initiating the process of religious ‘immunity’. Though Henry begged his brother’s forgiveness—which was and granted—he took part in a conspiracy to kill the king in 941. From its ...read more, Under the cover of darkness in the early morning hours of May 19, 1941, the most formidable battleship to have ever been built slipped into the Baltic Sea on its maiden voyage. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
By his victorious campaigns, he gave Germany peace and security from foreign attack, and the preeminent position that he won as ruler gave him a sort of hegemony in Europe. Question 1(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points) Why was Otto von Bismarck nicknamed the "Blood and Iron Chancellor"? By suppressing revolts, ousting invaders, and using the Church to spread his kingdom, Otto was arguably one of the most successful German kings of the Middle Ages. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Source: quora.com. Otto’s new role as King of Germany was put to the test twice within the first three years of his reign, and the Bavarian (938) and Franconian (939) rebellions – led by Arnulf and Everard respectively – forced Otto to react swiftly. He kept out Slavic and Magyar invaders, resisted France’s claim to Lotharingia, founded three bishoprics in Denmark, and secured his interests in Italy and Burgundy via his marriage to Adelaide of Italy. Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. He was twenty-three years old. Otto’s half-brother Thankmar joined the dukes of Bavaria and Franconia in rebellion in 938. The Italian campaign of 951 and Otto I’s suppression of his schematic rivals effectively kept the lid on the internal affairs of the Empire whilst he was fortunate enough to capitalise upon the sudden unification of Germany due to the Hungarian threat from without. 5 MORE Deadly and Disgusting Victorian Beauty Trends, Thirteenth-Century Kingmaker: Konrad von Hochstaden, Abelard & Heloise: 5 Lesser-Known Facts about these Medieval Lovers, Frederick II: 13th Century Renaissance Man, 4 Grimm’s Fairy Tales That Will NEVER Be Disney Movies, Halfpennies, Farthings, and Nobles: A Guide to England's Medieval Coins. One of the most important achievements of Otto’s reign, was the reorganisation of the duchies themselves. He lives in northern Portugal. In 930 Otto wed Edith, the daughter of Edward the Elder of England. By 951, Otto had already sent an embassy to the Pope in order to request that – like Charlemagne before him – he be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The first was a Papal Bull authorising the erection of an archbishopric at Magdeburg, and the second a document known as the Ottonianum in which Otto imitated the Frankish Donations of Pepin and Charlemagne. German artist Otto Dix was a committed painter of portraits. Indeed, it does seem rather paradoxical that his inability to deal effectively with his enemies was substantially obscured by a new threat from the barbarian hordes. Consequently, Otto I became known as ‘the Great’ and even his Saxon biographer, Widukind, portrays him in his Rex gestæ Saxonicæ as Emperor from that moment on for whilst “he may have used the word metaphorically it had its symbolical meaning, for the victory of the Lechfeld showed that Otto was worthy to be a great ruler. From 1851 to 1862 Bismarck served a series of ambassadorships—at the German Confederation in Frankfurt, in St. Petersburg and in Paris—that gave him valuable insight into the vulnerabilities of Europe’s great powers. It was named after the town of Weimar where Germany’s new government was formed by a national assembly after Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated. The treaty regulated relations between pope and emperor, although whether or not the rule allowing emperors to ratify papal elections was part of the original version remains a matter for debate.
Telling Time in the Middle Ages: 5 Things You Didn’t Know. In 973, just one year later, Otto I passed away. The French declared war, but the Prussians and their German allies won handily. The far-reaching practical consequences of the Ottonian system will be discussed in due course, when I examine Otto I’s relationship with the German Church in far greater depth. Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (German: Otto der Große, Italian: Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. The Rise and Fall of the Matriarch: Gender-Oscillation in Jewish Paganism, Why We Stay Asleep When Covid-19 Is Trying to Wake Us Up, Stuff of Nightmares: The Maharal of Prague, Friedrich Oetinger and the Quest for Anarchist Utopia. Otto had little difficulty in driving the rebels out of Lotharingia, but his opponents were successful in Bavaria and managed to establish themselves at Swabia and on the middle Rhine. During most of his lifetime and the most of history, Germany was divided into smaller countries, kingdoms, and principalities. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. The young king was bent on asserting the kind of firm control over the dukes that his father had never managed, but this policy led to immediate conflict.
Henry submitted to the king, and Otto forgave him. The Holy Roman emperor Otto I (912-973), called Otto the Great, was the most powerful western European ruler after Charlemagne. All rights reserved. He then returned to Italy to help Pope John XII stand against Berengar of Ivrea. His father was a fifth-generation Junker (a Prussian landowning noble), and his mother came from a family of successful academics and government ministers. All areas under Otto’s rule prospered, and the resultant flowering of culture has been called the Ottonian renaissance. As a leading scholar of the period, Archbishop Bruno was prone to collect classical manuscripts and had even been taught to speak fluent Greek by the monks at Reichenau.
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